OPN-300 for Autism and Prader-Willi Syndrome
We have engaged in early clinical development activities for OPN-300, which combines our EDS with oxytocin. Oxytocin is a small, naturally occurring peptide currently used to stimulate lactation in breastfeeding women. Oxytocin acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has recently been considered a potential novel treatment alternative in several brain disorders due to a growing body of evidence of its critical role in social cognition and behavior.[1-5] Because oxytocin is a peptide with poor oral bioavailability, nasal administration with our EDS may allow for improved delivery. With standard liquid nasal spray delivery, only a small amount of the drug reaches systemic circulation. It is estimated that less than 0.01% of oxytocin in the blood enters the brain across the blood-brain barrier.
OPN-300 is being developed to target 2 orphan indications: Prader-Willi syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that is the leading genetic cause of obesity; and autism spectrum disorder. We conducted a Phase 1 clinical trial in late 2013 using OPN-300 in healthy volunteers. In that trial, a low dose of oxytocin delivered using our EDS produced a statistically significantly greater social-cognitive effect, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, performance on cognitive tests, and physiological markers, than intravenous administration of the same active ingredient that produced blood levels that were not statistically different. We believe this clinical trial supports the possibility of direct nose-to-brain activity of medication delivered using our EDS. We recently completed a second pilot clinical trial of OPN-300 in adult male patients with autism spectrum disorder. In that trial, adult men with autism spectrum disorder receiving nasal oxytocin showed statistically significant differences in interpretation of facial expressions. We are preparing for additional clinical development activities in pursuit of an indication for Prader-Willi syndrome.
We are evaluating the use of our EDS to deliver other drugs or drug combinations, including antibiotics, anticholinergics, antihistamines, mucolytics, leukotriene inhibitors, and other medication classes used to treat diseases primarily managed by ENT and allergy specialists. We have also identified several other product candidates with the potential to leverage our EDS to create clinically differentiated drug treatments for indications such as central nervous system disorders and pain. We will continue to evaluate opportunities to develop product candidates indicated for markets outside of our ENT and allergy focus through business development activities.
 Bartz JA, Hollander E. Oxytocin and experimental therapeutics in autism spectrum disorders. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:451-462.
 Feifel D, MacDonald K, Nguyen A, et al. Adjunctive intranasal oxytocin reduces symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:678-680.
 Ishak WW, Kahloon M, Fakhry H. Oxytocin role in enhancing well-being: a literature review. J Affect Disord. 2011;130:1-9.
 Neumann ID. Brain oxytocin: a key regulator of emotional and social behaviours in both females and males. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:858-865.
 Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature. 2005;435:673-676.